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David Reyes
David Reyes

Liquid Penetrant Testing Classroom Training Book Free Download

Designed exclusively for teaching, the Electromagnetic Testing Instructor Package focuses on the fundamentals for Levels I and II. The multimedia package includes: Instructor Lecture Guide; quizzes with answer keys for each section; online access to a downloadable PowerPoint lecture with more than 700 slides, which can be customized for classroom use; and Electromagnetic Testing Classroom Training Book. New material in this edition includes expanded information on remote field testing, alternating current field measurement, and magnetic flux leakage, along with new figures, diagrams, and photographs.

Liquid Penetrant Testing Classroom Training Book Free Download

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Liquid penetrant testing is a versatile non-destructive test method used for the detection of OPEN TO SURFACE DISCONTINUITIES in a wide variety of solid, non-porous materials. This method is also known as dye penetration testing. It is economical, versatile, and requires minimal training when compared to other NDE methods. It basically involves the application of Penetrant on the testing surface, allowing it on the test surface for a period of time, and application of the developer after cleaning the Penetrant completely from the test surface. The test results indicating the presence of Discontinuities not visible by unaided human eyes. The principal phenomenon in liquid penetrant testing is Capillary action.

Typical industry specifications prohibit operations that could close or mask surface openings before liquid penetrant testing some specifications also require a specific method to remove any such smeared metal, such as an approved acid etching process. A smooth surface is preferred but liquid penetrant testing can be satisfactorily performed on welded surfaces, relatively rough castings, and a wide variety of surface finishes using the properly designed penetrant materials and proper techniques for excess penetrant removal.

There are many satisfactory Precleaning methods depending on the test material condition and the condition of the surface of the test object. All cleaning methods must meet local environmental, health, and safety requirements and cause no harm to the test object. Many liquid penetrant testing procedures have specific requirements for types of Precleaning operations. As a minimum, all the test objects are wiped clean with an approved solvent, and the solvent is allowed to dry completely.

Vapour degreasing is effective in the removal of oil, grease, and similar organic contamination. However, there are restrictions as to its use before and after liquid penetrant testing. Safety and environmental concerns have virtually eliminated vapor degreasing. Degreasing must be limited to those materials that have been approved for this method of cleaning. Vapor degreasing removes organic soils from both the surface and cracks, evaporates completely and unlike water-based cleaners, does not require a rinse step or a drying (oven) step.

Steam cleaning equipment is particularly adaptable to the cleaning of large, unwieldy test objects not easily cleaned by immersion. No special equipment is required for steam cleaning of test objects destined for liquid penetrant testing. Steam with alkaline detergent provides ideal Precleaning conditions. The alkaline detergent emulsifies, softens, or dissolves the organic contaminants, and the steam gives the mechanical action to remove the alkaline detergent/contaminant from the test object.

Test objects that had metal smearing operations, such as power wire brushing or sandblasting, or often require etching to prepare them for liquid penetrant testing. This process uses an acid or alkaline solution to open up grinding burrs and remove smeared metal from surface discontinuities. All acid or alkaline residues must be neutralized and removed before liquid penetrant testing. The etching and neutralizing processes use either tanks and immersion or manual equipment and materials.

A very important step in the liquid penetrant testing process is to ensure all tested surfaces and all potential discontinuities are completely dry. If any liquid cleaner remains in the discontinuities, the penetrant may be unable to enter discontinuities and an inadequate exam will be performed. This is critical because the technician may not be aware that the penetrant did not enter the discontinuities.

Some liquid penetrant testing procedures require test objects that are cleaned with water receive a final cleaning with water-soluble solvents, such as isopropyl alcohol or acetone, to promote evaporation of water from discontinuities. Some liquid testing procedures require that test objects are oven-dried at temperatures up to 71 C (160 F). As a minimum, all surfaces should be allowed to dry by normal evaporation for a minimum of 5 min.

This is a 32-hour course that allows the user to detect surface-breaking defects such as hairline cracks. This method will transpose invisible defects to visible defects by using a liquid dye and describes the principles, limitations and advantages of liquid penetrant non-destructive testing (NDT) as applied to industrial/aviation components such as pipes, valves, hangers, and supports.

Emphasis is placed on the liquid penetrant testing techniques, including the use of color contrast solvent removable and water washable penetrant techniques. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate a basic understanding of various NDE liquid penetrant techniques and their applications.


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